Assessment of livestock production system and feed balance in watersheds of North Achefer district, Ethiopia

Bimrew Asmare, Yeshambel Mekuriaw, Bimrew Asmare


The study was conducted in North Achefer district of Amhara National Regional State in six selected watersheds with the objectives of characterizing the livestock production system and to assess the major feed resources and management. The watersheds were selected purposively based on agro-ecology (mid and low altitude). Moreover, focus group discussions and field observations were done to enrich survey data. The major feed resources biomass estimation in terms of dry matter (DM) was conducted using conversion factors. Diseases such as FMD, internal and external parasite, bloat and Newcastle (poultry diseases) are dominant in the area. Most of the respondents reported that the major water source for livestock during dry season was from well (49.6%) followed by spring water (37.5%) the remaining is from river water (12.9%). The major livestock feed resources available in the study areas were crop residues, natural pasture, hay and improved fodder harvested from backyard and soil and water conservation areas. In the study area, about 32.51% of feed dry matter deficit has been recorded. The major livestock production constraints of the study watersheds were shortage of grazing land, low productivity, disease, shortage of water, shortage of labor and predators in the order of importance. Watershed development is now being an important intervention for natural conservation in the study area and at the same time it is becoming very important to be a livestock feed source if cut and carry system is regularly applied.

Full Text:



Adebabay K.,2009. Characterization of Dairy Production Systems, Marketing and On- Farm Evaluation of the Effect of Feed Supplementation on Milk Yield and Composition at Bure district, Ethiopia. MSc. Thesis Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

Alemayehu M. and Sissay A., 2003. Integrated Livestock Development Project (ILDP). Livestock Feed Resources Survey. North Gondar, Ethiopia.pp. 75

Asaminew T., 2007. Production, handling, traditional processing practices and quality of milk in Bahir Dar milk shed Area, Ethiopia. M.Sc. Thesis. Haramaya University, Ethiopia.

Bedasa E., 2012. Study of Smallholder Farms Livestock Feed Sourcing and Feeding Strategies and Their Implication on Livestock Water Productivity in Mixed Crop-Livestock Systems in The Highlands of the Blue Nile Basin. . MSc. Thesis Haramaya University Ethiopia.

Belay D., Azage T. and Hegde B.P.,2012. Smallholder Livestock Production System in Dandi District, Oromia Regional State, Central Ethiopia. College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, P.O. Box: 307, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Belete A.,2006. Studies on cattle milk and meat production in fogera Woreda: production system, constraints and opportunities for development, MSc thesis, Debub University, Awassa, Ethiopia.P57-103.

Belete S.,2009. Production and marketing system of small ruminants in Goma district of Jimma Zone,Western Ethiopia. MSc. Thesis Hawassa University, Awassa , Ethiopia. P38-111.

CSA (Agricultural Sample Survey), 2013. Volume II: Report on Livestock and livestock characteristics (Private peasant holdings). Statistical Bulletin 570.Central Statistical Agency (CSA), Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa.

Ethiopian Central Statistical Agency and ORC Macro –Dr. Pav

Govindasamy, 2006. Ethiopian Demographic and health Survey.Doc. Addis Ababa Ethiopia.

FAO,1987. Master land use plan, Ethiopian Rangeland/Livestock Council report prepared for the Government of the People Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Technical report AG/ETH/ 82/ 020, FAO, Rome

Firew T. and Getnet A.,2010. Feed resource assessments in Amhara National Regional State. Ethiopian Sanitary and phytosanitory standards and livestock and meat marketing program (SPA-LMM) Texas A and M University system Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.P2-105.

Getahun L.,2008. Productive and economic performance of small ruminants in two production systems of the highlands of Ethiopia. PhD Dissertation, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.

Hunduma D.,2012. Reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows under smallholder condition in Ethiopia. Artificial Insemination Institute, Adama Science and Technology University.

Jahnke H. E.,1982. Livestock Production Systems and Livestock Development in Tropical Africa. Kieler Wissenschaftsverlag Vauk. Kiel, Germany.

Lakew D., Carucci V., Asrat W. and Yitayew, A.,2005. Community based participation North Achefer District watershed development. A.A Ethiopia.

SAS, 2000 (9.1 version). SAS Users’ guide, Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Institute, Inc, Cary, NC.

Sisay A.,2006. Livestock Production Systems and Available Feed Resources in Different Agro-Ecologies of North Gonder Zone, Ethiopia. MSc. Thesis. Haramaya University Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.89p.

Solomon B.,2004. Assessment of livestock production systems and feed resources base in Sinana and Dinsho districts of Bale highlands, Southeast Oromia. MSc. Thesis. Alemaya University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. 141pp.

SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). (Version 20), 2011. Application guide, SPSS Inc.

Teshome D.,2009. On-farm Evaluation of Urea Treated Rice Straw and Rice Bran Supplementation on Feed Intake, Milk Yield and Composition of Fogera Cows, North Western Ethiopia. M.Sc. Thesis. Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

Wani S.P., Sreedevi T.K., Reddy T.S.V., Venkateswarlu B., Prasad C.S.,2008. Community watersheds for improved livelihoods through consortium approach in drought prone rain-fed areas. Journal of Hydrological Research and Development. 23:55-77.

WoA (North Achefer woreda office of agriculture), 2013. Annual report of the agriculture sector.

Yeshambel M., Mengistu U. and Getachew A.,2011. Role of indigenous Bamboo species (Yushania alpine and Oxytenanthera abyssinica) as ruminant feed in northwestern Ethiopia. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 23 (9). Retrieved September 12, 2016, from 23185.htm.

Yeshitila A.,2008. Assessment of Livestock Feed Resources Utilization in Alaba woreda,. Southrn Ethiopia, Thesis Haramaya University. Haramaya, Ethiopia.

Zewdie W.,2010. Livestock production systems in relation with feed availability in the highlands and central rift valley, A Thesis Submitted to the School of Animal and Range Sciences, School of Graduate Studies Haramaya university, Ethiopia.